Poland’s energy strategy aims to provide: energy security, energy independence, import-source diversification, technological efficiency, and reduced pollution - all while turning Poland into a major energy hub in the heart of Europe.
Given the long history of energy blackmail by Russia, Poland’s energy strategy strives to reduce its dependence on Russian natural gas.
ENERGY SOURCES (based on 2016 IEA data, unless otherwise specified):
Coal accounts for 50% of Poland’s energy supply and generates 80% of its electricity (down from 93% in 2013).
Poland imports 8.6 megatons of coal (60.6% from Russia) and exports 9.3 megatons of coal each year. Coal is the only energy source in which Poland has a trade surplus.
Poland sits atop of 90% of the EU’s bituminous coal deposits and 25% of its lignite deposits.
Natural gas accounts for 15% of Poland’s energy supply and generates 5% of its electricity.
The country imports 14.7 billion cubic meters of gas (74.3% from Russia) and exports 0.9 billion cubic meters of gas (all to Ukraine).
In 2017, Russian gas constituted 63 percent of Poland’s natural gas usage while domestic production constituted 26 percent, and LNG imports 11 percent.
Oil accounts for 26% of Poland’s energy supply and generates just 1% of its electricity.
Poland imports 24.8 megatons of crude oil (83.7% from Russia) and exports 0.2 megatons of crude oil (all to Germany).
Renewable energy sources account for 9% of Poland’s energy supply and generate 14% of its electricity (8% from wind, 5% from biofuels, and 1% from water).
Poland has worked to meet the EU requirement that renewable sources generate at least 15% of its energy consumption by 2020. If Poland fails to meet that goal, it will be required to pay a fine of 4 million euros a month.
Poland imports 14.5 terrawatt hours of electricity (73.7% from Germany) while exporting 14.8 terrawatt hours (66% to the Czech Republic).
Poland hopes to transform the country into a major Central European energy hub capable of exporting surplus energy to neighboring countries like Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Ukraine, and the Baltic states, thereby helping them reduce their dependence on Russia.
Poland has doubled its LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports from Qatar (to approximately 3 billion cubic meters) and has signed a deal to import LNG from the United States.
By 2022, Poland’s hopes to get 43% of its natural gas from Norway (via the Baltic Pipe), 37% from LNG (primarily from Qatar and the US), and 20% from domestic production, completely eliminating the need to purchase gas from Russia.
When the Baltic Pipe opens in late 2022, Poland expects it to transport 8.78 billion cubic meters of gas from Norway to Poland.
The Polish government has indicated that it will not renew its contract with Russian natural gas giant Gazprom. The current contract expires in 2022.
Poland’s Ministry of Energy is currently developing an updated energy policy document, which will set forth the government’s long-term vision for the energy sector.