Poland’s energy strategy aims to provide: energy security (US Department of Energy), energy independence (Polish News), import-source diversification (Poland@Sea), technological efficiency (US Department of Energy), and reduced pollution (Scientific American) - all while turning Poland into a major energy hub in the heart of Europe.
Given the long history of energy blackmail by Russia, Poland’s energy strategy also strives to reduce its dependence on Russian natural gas.
ENERGY SOURCES (based on 2016 IEA data, unless otherwise specified):
Coal accounts for 50% of Poland’s energy supply and generates 80% of its electricity (down from 93% in 2013).
Poland imports 8.6 megatons of coal (60.6% from Russia) and exports 9.3 megatons of coal each year. Coal is the only energy source in which Poland has a trade surplus.
Poland sits atop of 90% of the EU’s bituminous coal deposits and 25% of its lignite deposits.
Natural gas accounts for 15% of Poland’s energy supply and generates 5% of its electricity.
The country imports 14.7 billion cubic meters of gas (74.3% from Russia) and exports 0.9 billion cubic meters of gas (all to Ukraine).
In 2017, Russian gas constituted 63 percent of Poland’s natural gas usage while domestic production constituted 26 percent, and LNG imports 11 percent.
Oil accounts for 26% of Poland’s energy supply and generates just 1% of its electricity.
Poland imports 24.8 megatons of crude oil (83.7% from Russia) and exports 0.2 megatons of crude oil (all to Germany).
Renewable energy sources account for 9% of Poland’s energy supply and generate 14% of its electricity (8% from wind, 5% from biofuels, and 1% from water).
Poland has worked to meet the EU requirement that renewable sources generate at least 15% of its energy consumption by 2020. If Poland fails to meet that goal, it will be required to pay a fine of 4 million euros a month.
Poland imports 14.5 terrawatt hours of electricity (73.7% from Germany) while exporting 14.8 terrawatt hours (66% to the Czech Republic).
Poland hopes to transform the country into a major Central and Eastern Europe Energy hub capable of exporting surplus energy to neighboring countries such as Lithuania, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Ukraine, thereby helping them reduce their dependence on Russia. (Financial Times) It hopes to do this primarily through the Baltic Pipeline.
Starting from 2022, 43% of Poland’s gas is projected to come from Norway through the Baltic pipeline, 37% as LNG import, and 20% is projected to consist of Poland’s own gas extraction, hopefully completely eliminating the need to purchase gas from Russia. (Center of Energy Partnership)
When the Baltic Pipe opens in late 2022, Poland expects it to transport 8.78 billion cubic meters of gas from Norway to Poland.
The Polish state-run energy firm PGNiG is targeting a total gas output of 2.2 billion cubic meters (bcm) by 2022 from 0.55 bcm in 2017. (Reuters)
When it comes into operation in 2022, the new pipeline will be able to ship 10 billion cubic meters of Norwegian natural gas per year directly to the Polish market - and further to the Baltic States. (Euractiv), (Reuters)
The Polish Government has stated that it will not renew its contract with Russian natural gas giant Gazprom. Their current contract expires in 2022. (Central European Financial Observer)
Meanwhile, the Ministry of Energy submitted for consultation a draft for its Energy Policy until 2040, which presents 8 strategic directions: 1) Optimal use of domestic energy resources; 2) Development of the electricity generation and transmission infrastructure; 3) Diversification of natural gas and oil supply and development of infrastructure; 4) Development of energy markets; 5) Launch of nuclear energy; 6) Development of renewable energy sources; 7) Development of heating sector and cogeneration; and 8) Improving energy efficiency. (Ministerstwo Energii)